Time'n and Count'n
Using PIC ® Microcontrollers
by David Benson








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  • "Time'n and Count'n"    is an intermediate level book on 16-bit timing and counting applications using Microchip Technology's PIC microcontrollers. More opportunities for creating fun projects are described. Learning to use timer 1 (TMR1) with it's powerful capture, compare and pulse width modulation (PWM) modes will expand your PIC microcontroller design capabilities significantly. TMR1, which is an on-board feature of many of the mid-range PIC microcontrollers, is a 16-bit timer/counter. The maximum count is 65,535 vs. 255 for timer 0 (TMR0). This is a big help! TMR1 used in conjunction with the capture, compare, PWM (CCP) module may be programmed to do useful things unattended leaving the PIC free to perform other tasks. A special pin may be used for external inputs to TMR1 and another special pin may be used as an external output from TMR1. The techniques presented in the book are useful for generating single time intervals and free running outputs as well as for measuring period and frequency. PWM using TMR1 unattended is also described. These timing and counting techniques serve as the basis for designing and building your own period and frequency generating and measuring test equipment as described in the book. By David Benson (8-1/2 x 11 format, 218 pages, $34.95).


    Table of Contents
    INTRODUCTION

    TEST EQUIPMENT FOR TIMING AND COUNTING EXPERIMENTS

    Test equipment for detecting a short single pulse and measuring it's width
    Pulse generator - 32 microseconds
    Pulse generator - 128 microseconds
    Pulse generator - 2000 microseconds
    Pulse generator - 65280 microseconds
    Test equipment for generating a frequency output
    USING TIMER 1, TIMER 2 AND THE CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM (CCP) MODULE

    PIC16F870 test circuit
    Before we take off
    TMR2: 8-bit timer
    TMR2 description
    How to choose/select mode of operation
    Interrupts
    TMR2 applications
       Free running mode (via TMR2 interrupt)
       Free running mode (via period register)
    TMR1: 16-bit timer/counter and capture/compare module
    TMR1/CCP module simplified
    TMR1 description
    CCP module - capture mode
    CCP module - compare mode
    CCP module - PWM mode
    How to choose/select mode of operation
       T1CON register
       CCP1CON register
    Interrupts
    Reading and writing TMR1
    Long time intervals
    Controlling the CCP1 pin in compare mode
    More than one way to do timing stuff
    Timing and counting experiments
    Free running output (via TMR1 interrupt)
    Event counting (via TMR1)
       Count events, read TMR1 contents
       Capture TMR1 count when external event occurs
       Count events up to predetermined number and generate an output (compare)
    Single time interval output (via TMR1 and CCP, compare mode)
       Start TMR1, auto end
          500 milliseconds
          128 microseconds
    Free running output (via TMR1 and CCP, compare mode)
          Clear TMR1 each cycle
          Free running TMR1, add interval value to compare register each cycle
    Time measurement (period/interval/time between events)
          (via TMR1 read)(interval input via port pin)
          (via TMR1 and CCP, capture mode)(interval input via CCP1 pin,
          two captures,subtract)
    Frequency measurement (via TMR1, gate via TMR0)
    External 32,768 Hz watch crystal-based clock for TMR1
    Pulse width modulation (PWM) using TMR2 and the CCP module
    Analog output - increase/decrease buttons - PWM - 8-bit mode
    Duty cycle - 10-bit mode
    Analog output - increase/decrease buttons - PWM - 10-bit mode

    DESIGNING AND BUILDING YOUR OWN TEST EQUIPMENT

    Keypad/LCD user interface
    5-digit decimal to 16-bit binary entry program
    Using the 5-digit decimal to 16-bit binary entry program
    Digital pulse generator
    Digital frequency generator
    Time interval measurement instrument
    Frequency measurement instrument
    Creating your own combination signal generator and measurement instrument

    APPENDIX A - Program listings vs. page number

    APPENDIX B - PICF870 control registers

    APPENDIX C - '84 on a board

    APPENDIX D - PIC/LCD schematic and code

    APPENDIX E - Keypad

    APPENDIX F - Using the ICD

    APPENDIX G - Sources





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